Editorial Staff

Peoples of the Philippines

Editor-in-Chief
General Managing Editor
Creative Director
Area Editor, 1994 Edition

Nicanor G. Tiongson

Area Editor, 2018 Edition
Area Editor, Digital Edition

Gonzalo Abreu Campoamor II

Associate Editors, 2018 Edition

Gonzalo Abreu Campoamor II

Louise Jashil Sonido

Consultant
Technical Director

Joel P. Bermudez

Logo/Identity Designer

Rogin Sarmiento Tallada

Graphics and Layout Artists

Harry Monzon

Maria Angela Taguiang

Visual Research Director

Samantha Louise Bigcas

Visual Researchers

Jenina Danielle Melchor

Malou Dela Cruz Bayona

Matthew Benjamin P. Lopez

Christine Blesserie Becina

Leticia Bulanadi

Gilda Cordero-Fernando

Cesar A. Hernando

Giesil Carina Merin

Cynthia Cruz-Paz

Ariel Lev Pinzon  

Illustrators

Glenda Maye Abad

Dominic Agsaway

Leo Kempis Ang

Luis Chua

Jose Christian Galag

Rommel Joson

Jap Mikel

Harry Monzon

Lou Pineda-Arada

Jonathan Rañola

Benedict Reyna

Ray Sunga

Ara Villena

Copy Editors

Sarah Lumba

Paulo Anthony J. Mendoza

Proofreader

Joshene Pearl Bersales

Writers

Leah Abayao

Carmen Abubakar

Arbeen Acuña

Stanley F. Anongos

Pia Arboleda

Glecy Atienza

Arnold Molina Azurin

Rolando Bajo

Nerissa Balce

Rafael Banzuela Jr.

Peñafrancia Raniela Barbaza

John E. Barrios

Joi Barrios

Herminio S. Beltran Jr.

John Bengan

Jose S. Buenconsejo

Romulo Vinci R. Bueza

Erlinda M. Burton

Gonzalo A. Campoamor II

Gabriel Casal

Alexander Castro

Christopher Mitch Cerda

Gary E. P. Cheng

Jonathan Chua

Marita Cleto

Monica Felicia Consing

Rosario Cruz-Lucero

Alexander de Juan

Reynaldo Duque

Kristoffer Esquejo

Doreen G. Fernandez

Jimmy Balud Fong

Danilo Gerona

Eulalio R. Guieb III

J. F. C. Hernandez

Corazon Hila

Florentino Hornedo

Corazon G. Iñigo

René B. Javellana

Dante Javier

Hermilinda Lingbaoan-Bulong

Matthew Benjamin P. Lopez

Nagasura Madale

Maria Mangahas

Edna Z. Manlapaz

E. Arsenio Manuel

Edgardo Maranan

Dandan Masinaring

Rosalie S. Matilac

Amado Anthony Mendoza III

Resil B. Mojares

Emmanuel Nabayra

Ma. Crisanta Nelmida-Flores

Ramon A. Obusan

Robert V. Panaguiton

Earl Francis Pasilan

Santiago A. Pilar

Jaime B. Polo

Ruchie Mark Pototanon

Felicidad A. Prudente

Jay Jomar F. Quintos

Maria Lilia F. Realubit

Nicole Revel

Francisca Reyes-Aquino

Filemon G. Romero

Scott Saboy

Analyn V. Salvador-Amores

Perla Samson-Nelmida

Angelito Santos

Paz Verdades M. Santos

Ramon F. Sarmiento

Louise Jashil R. Sonido

Jake Soriano

Victorio N. Sugbo

Vel J. Sumingit

Humberto Tejero

Nicanor G. Tiongson

Wilhelmina Torralba

Rene Trance

Michael Jude Tumamac

Filonila M. Tupas

Tito Valiente

Jeffrey Yap

Galileo Zafra

Fernando N. Zialcita

Architecture

Editor-in-Chief
General Managing Editor
Creative Director
Area Editor, 1994 Edition
Area Editor, 2018 Edition
Area Editor, Digital Edition

Edgar Allan M. Sembrano

Principal Associate Area Editor, 2018 Edition
Associate Area Editor, 2018 Edition

Edgar Allan M. Sembrano

Technical Director

Joel P. Bermudez

Logo/Identity Designer

Rogin Sarmiento Tallada

Visual Research Director

Samantha Louise Bigcas

Visual Researcher

Kiko del Rosario

Graphic and Layout Artist

Kiko del Rosario

Head Copy Editors

Nestor de Guzman

Elmer L. Gatchalian

Copy Editors

Raissa Azarcon

Rosario Cruz-Lucero

Gabriela Dans-Lee

Raissa Claire Falgui

Ana Felisa Lorenzo

Sarah Lumba

Francis Paolo Quina

Patrisha G. Perez

Proofreaders

Beverly W. Siy

Rafael Mario Topacio-Aplaon

Writers

Clarissa L. Avendaño

Angel P. Bautista

Mary Rajelyn J. Busmente

Maria Elena C. Cayanan

Rosario Cruz-Lucero

Eusebio Z. Dizon

Rosario Encarnacion-Tan

Rino D.A. Fernandez

Ana Maria M. Gonzales

Alice G. Guillermo

Ma. Corazon A. Hila

Omarjan Jahuran

René B. Javellana

Regalado Trota Jose

Kinna G. Kwan

Paul Labrado

Rosa Concepcion Ladrido

Nagasura Madale

Billy Ray C. Malacura

Joy B. Mananghaya

Trizer Dale D. Mansueto

Roel Hoang Manipon

J. Mata

Rene Luis S. Mata

Resil B. Mojares

Ryan V. Palad

Bryan Anthony C. Paraiso

Melvin G. Patawaran

Rodrigo D. Perez III

Santiago A. Pilar

Nicholas F. Ramos

Edgar Allan M. Sembrano

Willa R. Solomon

Nicanor G. Tiongson

Milan Ted D. Torralba

Maria Cristina V. Turalba

F. Varona

Ramon N. Villegas

Anson Yu

Fernando N. Zialcita

Visual Arts

Editor-in-Chief
General Managing Editor
Creative Director
Area Editor, 2018 Edition

Cecilia S. De La Paz

Area Editor, Digital Edition

Helen Yu-Rivera

Associate Area Editor, 2018 Edition

Maria Eileen Legaspi-Ramirez

Technical Director

Joel P. Bermudez

Logo/Identity Designer

Rogin Sarmiento Tallada

Visual Research Director

Samantha Louise Bigcas

Visual Researchers

Kiko del Rosario

Czarina Lopez

Matthew Benjamin P. Lopez

Jenina Melchor

Cynthia Cruz-Paz

Copy Editors

Nestor de Guzman

Onnah Valera

Paulo Anthony J. Mendoza

Proofreader

Jhoanne Kristine A. Vinuya

Writers

Erlinda Alburo

Maria Virginia Ramona E. Alfon

Gianpaolo Arago

David Baradas

Antares G. Bartolome

Purissima Benitez-Johannot

Rita S. Borja

Ringo Bunoan

Imelda Cajipe-Endaya

Marilyn R. Canta

Reuben Ramas Cañete

Sandra Castro

Eric Catipon

Clarissa Chikiamco

R. Chu

Monica Felicia P. Consing

Rina Angela P. Corpus

Flaudette May V. Datuin

Cecilia S. De La Paz

Iris S. de Ocampo

Roberto Daniel C. Devela

Doreen G. Fernandez

Raquel B. Florendo

Rosalinda Galang

Dorothea C. Garing

Manuel Kristoffer C. Giron

Alice G. Guillermo

Sofia G. Guillermo

Tessa Maria T. Guazon

J. B. Guysayko

Eloisa May P. Hernandez

Ma. Victoria T. Herrera

Abdulmari Imao

Lisa Ito-Tapang

René B. Javellana

Jeannie Javelosa

Regalado Trota Jose

Rosa Concepcion Ladrido

Alden Wilfredo Q. Lauzon

Maria Eileen Legaspi-Ramirez

Matthew Benjamin P. Lopez

Patricia Marion Y. Lopez

Mark Louie L. Lugue

Ino Manalo

Malu Maniquis

Pauline Mangilog

E. Arsenio Manuel

J. Paul S. Manzanilla

Sharon Mapa-Arriola

Rosalie S. Matilac

Rachel Mayo

Roberto Eliseo G. Paulino

Santiago A. Pilar

Ariel Lev Pinzon

Maria Portia Olenka C. Placino

Raquel Tisha P. Ramos

Zeny May D. Recidoro

Ryan Francis Reyes

Lara Angelica B. Rosario

Judith Camille Rosette

Louise Anne Salas

Jaime Oscar M. Salazar

Dino Carlo S. Santos

Maria Alicia A. Sarmiento

Manuel Agustin DZ Singson

Louise Jashil R. Sonido

Felice Sta. Maria

Maita Subido

Pearl E. Tan

Nicanor G. Tiongson

Noel Valdelleon

Annaliza B. Villar

Ramon N. Villegas

Jhoanne Kristine A. Vinuya

Clod Marlan Krister V. Yambao

Katrina Nicole D. Yap

Helen Yu-Rivera

Film

Editor-in-Chief
General Managing Editor
Creative Director
Principal Area Editor, 1994 Edition
Principal Area Editor, 2018 and Digital Editions
Associate Area Editor, 1994 Edition

Lena S. Pareja

Associate Area Editors, 2018 Edition

Anne Frances Sangil

Johann Vladimir J. Espiritu

Technical Director

Joel P. Bermudez

Logo/Identity Designer

Rogin Sarmiento Tallada

Visual Research Director

Samantha Louise Bigcas

Visual Researchers

Cesar A. Hernando

Cynthia Cruz-Paz

Copy Editors

Nestor De Guzman

Elmer L. Gatchalian

Patrisha G. Perez

Ma. Amparo Warren

Proofreader

Jhoanne Kristine A. Vinuya

Writers

Hubert Adoreno

Susan Claire Agbayani

Erlinda Alburo

Sylvelyn Jo Almanzor

Albert Almendralejo

Kathrina Alvarez

Eileen Ang

Rica Leticia Arevalo

Mesandel Arguelles

Glecy Atienza

Romulo P. Baquiran Jr.

Ronald Baytan

Herminio Beltran Jr.

John Bengan

Richard Bolisay

Ellen Bomasang

Patrick Campos

Emelie Capulong

Erika Carreon

Christian Co

Teddy Co

Nick Cruz

Joel David

Pio de Castro III

Rene de Guzman

Julian de la Cerna

Gregory del Carmen

Clodualdo del Mundo Jr.

Nick Deocampo

Cristine Directo

Justino Dormiendo

Johann Vladimir J. Espiritu

Doreen G. Fernandez

Rosalinda Galang

Joy Galvez

Jose Antonio Garcia

Elmer L. Gatchalian

Raquel Hernandez

Cesar A. Hernando

Jeffrey Javier

Ramon Jocson

Nenuca Jose

Khurshid Cañas Kalabud Jr.

Marra PL Lanot

Lorelie Legisniana

Michael Kho Lim

Pamela Mathiel Lopez

Shirley L. Lua

Bienvenido Lumbera

Malou L. Maniquis

Rosalie Matilac

Mario Mendez Jr.

Anella Mendoza

Lena S. Pareja

Jay Jomar Quintos

Gil Quito

Miguel Rapatan

Isidra P. Reyes

Jose Javier Reyes

Rosemarie Roque

Jaime Oscar Salazar

Anne Frances Sangil

Luna Sicat

Agustin L. Sotto

Menchie R. Tajan

Nicanor G. Tiongson

Nestor U. Torre

Mauro Tumbocon

Elvin Amerigo Valerio

Camilo Villanueva Jr.

Danny Villanueva

Jhoanne Kristine Vinuya

Marlon Wui

Galileo Zafra

Music

Editor-in-Chief
General Managing Editor
Creative Director
Area Editors, 1994 Edition
Area Editors, 2018 and Digital Editions
Consultants, 2018 Edition
Assistant to the Editor, 2018 Edition

Josephine Baradas

Technical Director

Joel P. Bermudez

Logo/Identity Designer

Rogin Sarmiento Tallada

Visual Research Director

Samantha Louise Bigcas

Visual Researchers

Guia Jolina Peralta

Cynthia Cruz-Paz

Keren Kezia Ortiz Morija

Clarissa Santos

Ezekiel Amoranto

Marie Carissa F. Lucero

Copy Editors

Nestor de Guzman

Elmer L. Gatchalian

Raissa Azarcon

Sarah Lumba

Elena Rivera Mirano

Patrisha G. Perez

Proofreader

Louise Adrianne O. Lopez

Writers

Clement Acevedo

Erlinda Alburo

Juan Bautista H. Alegre

Patricia Alpay

Rodney D. S. Ambat

Josefina B. Antonio

Jonas U. Baes

Josephine Cecilia L. Baradas

Pauline Angela S. Bautista

Kristina Benitez

Samantha Louise Bigcas

Mauricia D. Borromeo

Ma. Patricia Brillantes

Elvira A. Briones

Jose S. Buenconsejo

Benedict Martin Caliwara

Gigi Carunungan

Revelyn Franchesca Casauay

Miguel G. Castro

Cristina Maria P. Cayabyab

Ma. Alexandra I. Chua

Joseph Voltaire L. Contreras

Michael M. Coroza

Ira Cruz

Cynthia Cruz-Paz

Eva Cuenza

Edna Aurora C. Culig

Collis H. Davis Jr.

Verne David C. de la Peña

Cynthia de Leon

Collie de los Reyes

Alberto de los Santos

Lester D. Demetillo

James Diaz

Eric Dimson

Corazon C. Dioquino

Patricia Marie Dizon

Arnel Feliciano

Rosalinda Galang

T. Galvez

Karl M. Gaspar

Elmer L. Gatchalian

Carmencita Gil

Teresita Gimenez-Maceda

Jocelyn T. Guadalupe

Julia Ann Hallazgo

Antonio C. Hila

René B. Javellana

Ramon Jocson

Regalado Jose

Lucrecia R. Kasilag

Rosa Concepcion Ladrido

Grace M. Leung

Janine Josephine Arianne A. Liao

Crisancti Macazo

Jose M. Maceda

Raymundo R. Maigue

Jeanna B. Malabuyoc

Nathan Neil V. Manimtim

Malou L. Maniquis

Raj Mansukhani

Melissa Corazon V. Mantaring

E. Arsenio Manuel

Martin Hilario Mapolon

Edgardo B. Maranan

Edna Marcil M. Martinez

Rosalie Matilac

Lara T. Mendoza

Giesil Carina Merin

Oh Mihyun

Isidora Miranda

Resil B. Mojares

Katherine Frances V. Molina

Annie Montano

Maria Christine M. Muyco

Lisa Nakpil

Pacita M. Narzo

Raul C. Navarro

Filemon D. Nolasco

Flerida G. Nolasco

Josephine Queipo

Ricardo C. Quirino

Jema Pamintuan

Jeremias Navarro Perez

Roselle V. Pineda

Ariel Lev Pinzon

Felicidad A. Prudente

Felicidad Z. Reyes

Elena Rivera Mirano

Katrina Stuart Santiago

Ramon P. Santos

Fritz Schenker

Leonardo R. Silos

Ma. Patricia B. Silvestre

Victorio N. Sugbo

Ma. Edelquinn Sy-Beltran

Menchie R. Tajan

Mary Talusan

Arwin Q. Tan

Jose Taton Jr.

Nicanor G. Tiongson

Josefino J. Toledo

Rolando B. Tolentino

Jose Valenciano

Jeanne Marcelle Velasco-Vicars

Jhoanne Kristine Vinuya

Marlon Wui

Danny Yson

Hope S. Yu

Galileo Zafra

Dance

Editor-in-Chief
General Managing Editor
Creative Director
Area Editor, 1994 Edition
Area Editor, 2018 Edition

Basilio Esteban S. Villaruz

Area Editors, Digital Edition

Rosalie S. Matilac

Ruth Jordana L. Pison

Associate Area Editor, 2018 Edition

Ruth Jordana L. Pison

Technical Director

Joel P. Bermudez

Logo/Identity Designer

Rogin Sarmiento Tallada

Graphics/Layout Artist

Kiko del Rosario

Visual Research Director

Samantha Louise Bigcas

Visual Researchers

Ruth Hermosura

Patricia Simone Dauz

Copy Editors

Raissa Azarcon

Nestor de Guzman

Elmer L. Gatchalian

Sarah Lumba

Elena Rivera Mirano

Patrisha G. Perez

Proofreader

Louise Adrianne O. Lopez

Writers

Erlinda Alburo

Reynaldo G. Alejandro

Herbert Alvarez

Ligaya F. Amilbangsa

Carmen T. Andin

Prosperidad M. Arandez

Nerissa S. Balce

Samo Balt

Franz Edric Bangalan

Benita Maria P. Barros

Regina Angelica Bautista

Myra Victoria C. Beltran

Dave Bercades

Jonathan Y. Cagas

Emilie B. Capulong

R. Cassell

Angella Betina Carlos

M. G. Castro

Rina Angela P. Corpus

Rosario Cruz-Lucero

Rene de Guzman

Jean Aaron de Borja

Paul G. del Rosario

Alberto L. Dimarucut

Corazon C. Dioquino

Marge C. Enriquez

Anna Camille Fabella

Brenda Fajardo

Doreen G. Fernandez

Ma. Eloisa Francisco

Larry A. Gabao

Ma. Cherish M. Garcia

Elmer L. Gatchalian

Corazon Generoso-Iñigo

Mary Jane L. Globio

Guillermo Gomez y Rivera

Josefina B. Guillen

Joelle Florence B. Jacinto

Nestor O. Jardin

Anita M. Kane

Karryl Faye Katigbak

Kinna G. Kwan

Rosa Concepcion Ladrido

Angela Lawenko-Baguilat

Felicitas Layag-Radaic

Elizabeth Lolarga

Sarah Lumba

Paolo Marko Manalo

Malou L. Maniquis Kristine

May D. Martinez

Rosalie S. Matilac

Desiree P. Medina

Clarissa Cecilia Mijares-Ramos

Ronnie Mirabuena

Ramon A. Obusan

C. Ocampo

Mena Ojeda

Leonor Orosa-Goquingco

Adeliene Eve G. Paraso

Seneca Pellano

Roselle V. Pineda

Remedios V. Piñon

Ruth Jordana L. Pison

Chantal Primero

Nicole Primero

Elka Krystle Requinta

Lucrecia Reyes-Urtula

Elena Rivera Mirano

Nicanor G. Tiongson

Teresita Veloso-Pil

Edna Vida

Basilio Esteban S. Villaruz

Theater

Editor-in-Chief
General Managing Editor
Creative Director
Area Editor, 1994 Edition
Area Editor, 2018 and Digital Editions
Associate Area Editors, 2018 and Digital Editions

Galileo S. Zafra

Erick Dasig Aguilar

Assistant to the Editors, 2018 Edition

Athena Angela Aquino

Technical Director

Joel P. Bermudez

Logo/Identity Designer

Rogin Sarmiento Tallada

Visual Research Director

Samantha Louise Bigcas

Visual Researchers

Ruth Hermosura

Cynthia Cruz-Paz

Patricia Simone Dauz

John Brian De Asis

Krizza Marie Louella Tadeja

Giesil Carina Merin

Copy Editors

Nestor de Guzman

Dorothea Garing

Elmer L. Gatchalian

Sarah Lumba

Paulo Anthony J. Mendoza

Onnah Valera

Maria Amparo Warren

Proofreader

RM Topacio-Aplaon

Writers

Aura Albano Abiera

Erick Dasig Aguilar

Erlinda Alburo

Monette Alfon

Ligaya Fernando Amilbangsa

Walter Ang

Rebecca T. Añonuevo

Athena Angela Aquino

Glecy C. Atienza

Jose Duke Bagulaya

Romulo P. Baquiran Jr.

Peñafrancia Raniela E. Barbaza

Joi Barrios

Christine S. Bellen

Ma. Carolina Rodriguez Bello

Herminio S. Beltran Jr.

Bernardo C. Bernardo

Ronald H. Biñas

Amihan Bonifacio-Ramolete

Cristina Buenaventura

Gilbert H. Cadiz

Fernando Cao

Maria Veronica G. Caparas

Arthur P. Casanova

L. M. Castillo

Tyron Judes de la Calsada Casumpang

Apolonio B. Chua

Jonathan Chua

Michael M. Coroza

Malou Corpuz

Alexander C. Cortez

Celina S. Cristobal

Rosario Cruz-Lucero

Tim Dacanay

Patricia Simone Dauz

Joel David

Ma. Cecilia C. de la Rosa

Ludendorffo T. Decenteceo

G. del Carmen

Aileen C. dela Cruz

Jeremy dela Cruz

Wystan dela Peña

Amanda Echevarria

Alice Esteves

Josefina F. Estrella

Melecio Cervantes Fabros III

Albina Peczon Fernandez

Doreen G. Fernandez

Marilie Fernandez-Ilagan

Manuel D. Ferrer

Clarita Filipinas

Alicia Gamboa

Ruby Gamboa-Alcantara

Rosalinda Galang

Analyn C. Galvez

Carlo Pacolor Garcia

Nikki Garde-Torres

Elmer L. Gatchalian

Pacita C. Gavino

T. Gonzales

Vladimeir B. Gonzales

Luna Griño-Inocian

Amadis Ma. Guerrero

Judy Celine Ick

Bonifacio P. Ilagan

Pura Ella Gajo Jamoralin

Jethro Joaquin

Odessa Joson

Lutgardo L. Labad

Rosa Concepcion Ladrido

Marra PL. Lanot

Ronel O. Laranjo

Joanna Lerio

Jazmin Badong Llana

Ma. Cecilia Locsin-Nava

Richard P. Magbanwa

Liza C. Magtoto

Paolo Manalo

Malou L. Maniquis

Edna Z. Manlapaz

E. Arsenio Manuel

Dennis N. Marasigan

May Lilian T. Maravilles

Maria Teresa Martinez-Sicat

Rosalie Matilac

Amado Anthony G. Mendoza

Mary Ann J. Mendoza

Banaue C. Miclat-Janssen

Resil B. Mojares

Ma. Crisanta Nelmida-Flores

Olivia Nieto

Ramon A. Obusan

Josem Arie Roxas Pabion

V. Pablo

Ma. Clara Rosario C. Palma

Manuel D. Pambid

Higino Francisco V. Peñones Jr.

Jovy M. Peregrino

Edward Perez

Joseph John Jimenez Perez

Martin Julius V. Perez

Rolando Perez

toteperez

Roselle V. Pineda

Ariel Lev Pinzon

Ruth Jordana L. Pison

Gio Potes

David Quimpo

Susan F. Quimpo

Lilia Quindoza-Santiago

Rebecca Razo

Maria Lilia F. Realubit

Jerry C. Respeto

Julz E. Riddle

Frank G. Rivera

Mario Rosal

Noemi U. Rosal

Victoria Salazar

L. Salem

Laura Samson

Cynthia Lourdes San Juan

Katrina Stuart Santiago

Opaline Rae B. Santos

Paz Verdades M. Santos

Elvira Santos-Verano

R. Saturay-Palis

Oscar Tantoco Serquiña Jr.

Luna Sicat-Cleto

Flor Temple

Sir Anril Tiatco

Nicanor G. Tiongson

Rolando B. Tolentino

Katherine Tolentino-Jayme

Lily Rose Tope

Jose Victor Torres

Henry Totanes

Amparo Adelina Umali III

Om Narayan Velasco

Mixkaela Z. Villalon

Basilio Esteban S. Villaruz

Bryan L. Vira

M. M. Yuhico

Galileo S. Zafra

Broadcast Arts

Editor-in-Chief
General Managing Editor
Creative Director
Area Editor (Radio), 2018 and Digital Editions

Elizabeth L. Enriquez

Area Editor (Television), 2018 and Digital Editions
Assistant to the Editor

Maria Angelica D. Abad-Bilan

Technical Director

Joel P. Bermudez

Logo/Identity Designer

Rogin Sarmiento Tallada

Visual Research Director

Samantha Louise Bigcas

Visual Researchers

Samantha Louise Bigcas

Guia Jolina Peralta

Raissa Azarcon

Patricia Lois E. Banaag

Cynthia Cruz-Paz

Copy Editors

Raissa Azarcon

Nestor de Guzman

Raissa Falgui

Paulo Anthony J. Mendoza

Proofreader

Kiko del Rosario

Writers

Maria Angelica D. Abad

Leo Abaya

Pearlsha Abubakar

Arbeen Tilde Acuña

Yna Marei Aguilar

Alyssa Jean E. Alano

Marinela L. Aseron

Allison Anne G. Atis

Fernando A. Austria Jr.

Victor A. Avecilla

Lia Gabriele A. Ballesteros

Maricel L. Baltazar

Romulo P. Baquiran Jr.

Maria Carmela Barbaza

Arjay B. Bartolome

Jose Bartolome

Janyn P. Berame

Laya Boquiren

Marian A. Caampued

Earvin Charles Cabalquinto

Erika Jean Cabanawan

Patrick F. Campos

Daphne-Tatiana T. Canlas

Olivia L. Cantor

Mae Urtal Caralde

Neil Angelo D. Caronan

Thea Claudette Castañeda

Laurence Marvin Castillo

Manolito Catacutan

Kim Mae Catungal

Ma. Ivy A. Claudio

Cynthia Cruz-Paz

Dean Airo Salvador E. Dancel

Gizelle Louise Dasmariñas

Dale de Jesus

Clodualdo del Mundo Jr.

Libertine S. Dela Cruz

Glenn Diaz

Rosario Judy Diño

Joan Dizon

Maria Amor R. Olaguer

Elizabeth L. Enriquez

Peter Lawrence Escobar

Melba S. Estonilo

Rosa Maria T. Feliciano

Beia Florete

Bradley Freeman

Elmer L. Gatchalian

Vladimeir B. Gonzales

Roland Antonio Guia Jr.

Eulalio R. Guieb III

Gene Paolo Gumagay

Hazel G. Hernandez

Cecile Angela Ilagan

Paul Richard Infante

Camille S. Intal

Lorna Israel

Isabella Louise D. Javier

Christine Jesalva

Ricardo T. Jose

Karyll Faye D. Katigbak

Jonalou Labor

Marra PL. Lanot

Stephanie Ledesma

Eileen Legaspi-Ramirez

Gian Carlo C. Librojo

Lindo Lindo

Lucia Isabel G. Macaventa

Teresita G. Maceda

Michael Makri

JPaul S. Manzanilla

Rosalie S. Matilac

Amado Anthony G. Mendoza III

Sharon May Mesias

Irma M. Mutuc

Victor Emmanuel D. Nadera Jr.

Ariel Marco Oclarit

Fraulein A. Oclarit

Divine Marie Joanne P. Endriga

Mark Lester Oliver

Earl Orio

Christine A. Palattao

Edgardo Ray G. Pedroche

Claudine Keith V. Regino

Angelina S. Relos

Severino P. Reyes III

Soledad S. Reyes

Frances Louise Ronquillo

Florangel Rosario-Braid

Laurence Roxas

Ericka Vernadette Sallador

Josefina M.C. Santos

Rolando F. Santos

Dean Airo Salvador E. Dancel

Anna Leah Sarabia

Severino R. Sarmenta Jr.

Louise Jashil R. Sonido

Maria Criselda C. Sto. Domingo

Lily Grace A. Tabanera

Jason Paolo R. Telles

Nicanor G. Tiongson

Ramon R. Tuazon

Arade Louise P. Villena

Jane O. Vinculado

Jhoanne Kristine A. Vinuya

Ralph Jake T. Wabingga

Literature

Editor-in-Chief
General Managing Editor
Creative Director
Area Editor, 1994 Edition
Area Editors, 2018 Edition

Rosario Cruz-Lucero

Jonathan Chua

Area Editors, Digital Edition

Louie Jon A. Sanchez

Louise Jashil R. Sonido

Associate Area Editors, 2018 Edition

Glenn Diaz

Om Narayan A. Velasco

Jay Jomar F. Quintos

Blaise Rogel C. Gacoscos

Regional Editors, 2018 Edition
Technical Director

Joel P. Bermudez

Logo/Identity Designer

Rogin Sarmiento Tallada

Visual Research Director

Samantha Louise Bigcas

Visual Researchers

Ma. Giesil Carina Merin

Jonathan Chua

Om Narayan Velasco

Copy Editor

Patrisha G. Perez

Proofreaders

Nestor de Guzman

Marc Jayson Cayabyab

Jonathan Chua

Charlene Diaz

Eric Gerard Nebran

Beverly W. Siy

Louise Adrianne O. Lopez

Patrisha G. Perez

Writers

Diego Abad

Cyan Abad-Jugo

Arbeen Acuña

Ralph Acuña

Carol Afan

Efmer Agustin

Gerry Alanguilan

Erlinda K. Alburo

Ruby G. Alcantara

Ophelia Alcantara-Dimalanta

Dean Alfar

Virgilio S. Almario

Vijae Alquisola

Merlie M. Alunan

Teresita Ang See

Rebecca T. Añonuevo

Roy V. Aragon

Thelma E. Arambulo

Liwayway Arceo

Jose Miguel Arguelles

D. Arroyo

Glecy Atienza

Kyra Ballesteros

Romulo P. Baquiran Jr.

Peñafrancia Raniela E. Barbaza

John E. Barrios

Gina Barte

Herminio S. Beltran Jr.

John Bengan

Estela Bisquera-Guerrero

Ellen Bomasang

Jaime Jesus U. Borlagdan

Jose A. Bragado

Lourdes Brillantes

Patricia B. Brillantes

Elizabeth R. Calero

Victoria S. Calizo

Patrick Campos

Victoria Cao

Jose Bernard Capino

Shane Carreon

Gregorio Castilla

Laurence Marvin Castillo

R. I. Castro

Christoffer Mitch C. Cerda

Jonathan Chua

Dominique Gerald Cimafranca

B. Cobarrubias

Reynaldo D. Coronel Jr.

Michael M. Coroza

Isagani R. Cruz

Jhoanna Lyn Cruz

Rosario Cruz-Lucero

Erma M. Cuizon

Alex Dacanay

Mabi David

Alexander de Juan

Mita L. de Manuel

Francisco del Rosario III

Katrina del Rosario

Julian dela Cerna

Cecilia S. Dela Paz

Leoncio Deriada

Glenn Diaz

Eliodora Dimzon

Edwin Duero

Emmanuel V. Dumlao

Reynaldo A. Duque

Bennet Dychangco

Nenita Escasa

Vladimir Johann J. Espiritu

Damiana Eugenio

Susan P. Evangelista

Marjorie Evasco

Doreen G. Fernandez

Rowena Festin

Emil Flores

Roderick Galam

Rosalinda Galang

Carlo Pacolor Garcia

Leni R. Garcia

Roger Garcia

Elmer L. Gatchalian

Teresita Gimenez-Maceda

Christine Godinez-Ortega

Vicente Garcia Groyon

Alice Guillermo

Ramil Gulle

Hazel Meghan Hamile

Caroline Hau

Paula Hernandez

Florentino Hornedo

Lucila V. Hosillos

E. P. Imson

Jeffrey Javier

Ramon Jocson

Norma Jolipa

Patricia May B. Jurilla

Phillip Kimpo

Angelo Lacuesta

Lolita R. Lacuesta

L. K. Lagman

Chris David Lao

Susan Lara

Kwan R. Laurel

Lilia H. Laurel

Junley Lazaga

Gabriela Lee

Hermilinda Lingbaoan-Bulong

Ma. Cecilia Locsin-Nava

Jo-ann Maglipon

Rosa Ma. Magno

Salvador B. Malig Jr.

Paolo M. Manalo

Niño Manaog

Arvin Mangohig

Malou L. Maniquis

Edna Z. Manlapaz

E. Arsenio Manuel

Edgardo B. Maranan

May Maravilles

Manuel A. Margate Jr.

Pilar E. Mariño

Alfredo Nathaniel Marte

Rosalie Matilac

Harold L. Mercurio

Imelda Morales

Santiago Alv. Mulato

P. D. Navarro

Ma. Crisanta Nelmida-Flores

Lourdes L. Nieva

Ambeth R. Ocampo

Elbert Or

Glenda Oris

Karl Orit

Victor Pablo

Esther Pacheco

E. C. Palma

Jema Pamintuan

Cheng Fang Pang

Tepai Pascual

Ma. Elena Paterno

Vina Paz

Ma. Epifania B. Prado

Maximino Pulan

Marina Quilab

Jay Jomar F. Quintos

Firie Jill Ramos

Maria Lilia F. Realubit

Danton Remoto

Nicole Revel

Danilo M. Reyes

E. Reyes

Felicidad Z. Reyes

Soledad Reyes

Elena Rivera-Mirano

Emmanuel L. Romanillos

Laurence Roxas

Victoria Salazar

Jay Salvosa

Edgar C. Samar

Charles Dominic Sanchez

Louie Jon A. Sanchez

Katrina Stuart Santiago

Angelito Santos

Paz Verdades M. Santos

Daisy See

Oscar T. Serquiña Jr.

Neni Sta. Romana-Cruz

Irwin Sto. Tomas

Victor N. Sugbo

Dominic Sy

Anthony Tan

Budjette Tan

Edgardo Tiamson

Ma. Teresa Pineda Tinio

Nicanor G. Tiongson

Joel Toledo

Gerardo Z. Torres

Rosario Torres-Yu

Michael Jude Tumamac

Filonila M. Tupaz

Eduardo Uy

Tito G. Valiente

Angela L. Velasco

Om Narayan A. Velasco

Elvira Verano

Annaliza B. Villar

Corazon Villareal

Basilio Esteban S. Villaruz

Michael Carlo Villas

Maria Amparo Warren

Ma. Teresa Wright

Jeffrey Yap

Galileo Zafra